The “dry eye,” or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is one of the most common ocular conditions affecting patients.
Signs and Symptoms
Ocular irritation is one of the earliest symptoms a patient with KCS may experience. Classically, the patient describes a sandy, gritty, foreign-body sensation, in one or both eyes, that often becomes more pronounced as the day progresses. Some patients may note a more severe “burning” sensation in the eye when exposed to particularly dry or irritating environments, such as dry heat, warm or smoke-filled rooms, and wind. Sensitivity to light may also be reported.
Vital Dye Stains
Tear Break-up Time (BUT)
Schirmer Tear Tests
Treatment1)Artificial tears remain the primary treatment for mild to moderate keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Most artificial tears act as lubricants although others aim to replace missing tear constituents or to decrease the solute concentration in the tears.
Ointments offer the advantage of increased viscosity and retention time,but they may blur vision because of their increased viscosity. They are particularly helpful for use at bedtime or in individuals in whom the disease is more severe.
4)Tear Conservation by Punctal Occlusion
5)Partial or Total Tarsorrhaphy
7)Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction